Despite my best efforts to read the score as I practice, it can be very easy for me to get so fixated on the notes that I forget to look at the other indications written on the music. Because of this tendency, I decided to spend some time reading everything written on all the music in my repertoire and looking up any term or indication that I didn’t understand. Even though I’ve done this before, I was pleasantly surprised how helpful it was to learn the meaning of indications on the score. It transforms your relationship with the pieces that you are working on, helps immensely with interpretation, improves your overall knowledge of music, and you even learn some phrases in Italian, Spanish, German, French, and other languages! See below for some of the musical terms (in no particular order) that I found and their approximate definitions-some are common and quite obvious, while others are a bit more obscure.

Maestoso: majestically

Leggiero: lightly

Andante: relaxed, moderate tempo (around 64-72 bpm)

Espressivo: expressively

Diminuendo: gradual decrease of volume

Con moto: with motion

Rallentando: gradual slowing down

Poco: a little

Subito: suddenly

Tranquillamente: quietly

Dolce e calmo: sweetly and quietly

Un poco mosso: less motion/slower tempo

Gallardo: elegantly

Cantado: in a singing/lyrical style

Pesante: heavy, important, pondering

Cediando: more relaxed

Allegro: fast, lively

Gallardamente: in a brave or heroic manner

Prelude: beginning of a work, improvisation written down

Allemande: German dance in 4/4, moderate tempo, flowing, polyphonic, starts on upbeat

Courante: Lively French dance in 3/4, starts on a pickup note

Sarabande: slow and stately Spanish dance in 3/4, starts on downbeat

Bourrée: French dance, lively, each phrase starts on the downbeat of 4

Gigue: fast English and Irish dance with imitation and wide skips

Vivace Molto: very lively, faster than Allegro

Meno Molto: less motion

Con cadenza: with ornaments or freely

Molto: much, very

Rubato: slight speeding up and slowing down of tempo, means “stolen time” in Italian

Poco Piu Mosso: a little more quickly

Allegro unmoristico: humorous allegro

Ritmico: rhythmically

Quasi ad libitum: at your pleasure

Tenuto: sustain for longer than written

Vivace: lively and fast

I’istesso mov.: same tempo

Sempre: consistent

A piacere: at the discretion of the performer

Marcato: louder

Con slancio: with enthusiasm

Marcatiss.: very strong accent

Sforzando (sf, sfz): sudden accent

Assai: very

Piùten: more tenuto

El bajo un poco marcado: the bass a little marked (accented)

Ad libitum: at your pleasure

Allargando: to broaden or play slightly lower

Piú mosso: more quickly

Poco meno: a little less quickly

Poco a poco: gradually, literally “little by little”

Senza: without

Vivo: lively, animated, brisk

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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