The second to last piece in this series is Prelude No. 5, which is in 2/4 time, features the creative use of open strings, modal mixture, wide intervals in the melody, and has few definitive cadences. The piece is also in three-part song form (Simple Introduction, A, B, A’, Postlude), utilizes an eighth note texture throughout, and features irregular phrases. Like the preceding Prelude, the tonality of Prelude No. 5 is a modal mixture between B minor and B major, although in this piece B minor is the primary tonality. The combination of diatonic and secondary dominant chords with extended and Neapolitan chords, as well as the ambiguity of the cadences, demonstrate the intriguing blend of classical, folk, and impressionist influences that are an important characteristic of this work. See below for my analysis of Prelude No. 5:
Prelude No. 4 is a fast and lively piece in 3/8 and is written in regular three-part song form. The texture of the piece is primarily eighth notes. All phrases are irregular, the piece is primarily a modal mixture of the parallel keys of B major and B minor, the melody is similar in character to a Spanish gypsy song, and the harmonies include Neapolitan and extended chords. These developments exemplify the combination of folk, impressionist, and modern influences that is a constant throughout the work. The A section (mm 1-15) utilizes a B pedal tone from mm 1-7 and the harmonic accompaniment alternates between B major and B minor throughout the A section. This is followed by a transition that consists of an unaccompanied scale passage from mm 16-21 that leads into the B section. The B section features a stark change of texture to a largely unaccompanied melody from mm 25-28 that possesses characteristics that are similar to melodies sung in the style of Cante Jondo, a vocal and poetic style of Andalusian flamenco music that is known for setting melodies of a small pitch range to lyrics that typically convey deeply emotional subject matter. Like most Cante Jondo music, the melody features a narrow range and is primarily unaccompanied. Shortly thereafter, the key changes to G# minor, the relative minor of B major, and there is an extended half cadence from mm 33-36 leading to a varied repetition of the melody that first appeared in mm 25-28. There is also an F# pedal tone and impressionistic chord voicings from mm 41-49. The first phrase of the A section (A’) comes back in slightly modified form from mm 53-58, which is followed by a ten measure Coda that alternates between B major and its neapolitan chord, C major, ending on an imperfect authentic cadence in B major.
For more on Flamenco and Spanish gypsy music, check out this dissertation: https://aquila.usm.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1846&context=dissertations (go to pages 5-6 to learn more about Cante Jondo music)
Prelude No. 3 is in several ways a composition that is significantly distinct from the other five Preludes. It is the only Prelude in this work that is completely through composed, meaning that there are no definitive sections and each phrase is different while also exhibiting some commonalities. It also is the shortest Prelude, consisting of only 19 measures, and has the slowest tempo of the 6 Preludes, being played at a graceful and somewhat free Andante. In addition, it is in F# major, which has more sharps than any of the other keys used in this work. Unifying factors in this piece include the melody being either unaccompanied or very lightly accompanied, sometimes by a bass line and occasionally by chords, which for the most part tend to be placed at the end of phrases to give the piece a sense of momentum. Also, imitation between the melody and bass line or the bass line and melody occurs in measures 1-3, 8-9, and measure 15. Phrases 2 and 4 have a similar melodic contour, as well as phrases 3 and 5. Phrases 1, 3, and 5 are irregular, though phrases 2 and 4 are of the normal four-measure length. A brief modulation to the chromatic mediant bIII key occurs in measures 10-11, before quickly modulating back to the tonic. Measure 17 uses pantonality, which is the use of nonfunctional and chromatic harmonies, to set up an imperfect authentic cadence that ends the piece. See below for my analysis of Prelude No. 3 (as well as the first 13 measures of Prelude No. 4):
Like the first Prelude, Prelude No. 2 is also in three-part song form, though instead of the typical three-part song form in which the A section comes back in some capacity, this piece goes to a section that contains some material from the A section but seems to be too distinct to be labeled as the return of the A section. Because of this, I have analyzed the musical structure of Prelude No. 2 as A, B, C. This piece is played at a rapid tempo in 3/8 meter, is in the key of A major, makes extensive use of motives, and also features dramatic contrasts in dynamics. The A section (mm 1-12) consists of an expanded contrasting period in which the first and second phrases are sequences of each other; the second phrase starts and ends a step lower than the first phrase.
The B section (mm 13-30) derives its character from a two-measure motive that repeats throughout the entire section. The melody of phrases 2 and 3 of the B section use the exact same melodic and rhythmic pattern as phrase 1 of the B section, though the melody is stated a minor third above in phrase 2 and a major second below in phrase 3. This melody is accompanied by a descending bass line and light harmonic accompaniment in phrase 1 of the B section, a stepwise bass line and equally sparse harmonic accompaniment in phrase 2 of the B section, and harmonies based on the dominant in mm 21-22 and mm 27-30 and bVI chromatic mediant chord in mm 23-26. In addition, a gradual and long crescendo occurs throughout the entirety of the B section. The C section begins with a one measure motive from measure 1 of the A section, though this time it is played an octave lower. The second phrase of the C section is a modification of a motive from the third phrase of the A section. This phrase also modulates to the chromatic mediant bVI key. The third phrase of the C section modulates back to the tonic and makes use of harmonics, while the fourth and final phrase of the C section begins with the same motive that began the section, although this motive is transposed a perfect fifth lower than its first appearance in the C section. The piece ends on a perfect authentic cadence. Recurring themes of this piece include the repetition and variation of rhythmic and melodic motives. These characteristics combine with the fast tempo to create a restless and driving rhythmic feel that contrasts with both the preceding and upcoming Preludes.
In the spring of last year, I analyzed the first set of 6 Preludes by Manuel Ponce as part of an assignment for a Form and Analysis class at Nyack College. Fast forward about a year and a half, and I am now preparing to apply to graduate schools, most of which require writing samples as part of the application. As a result, I’ve been looking over some of the papers that I had written and came across this analysis of the first set of Ponce’s Preludes. After doing some editing on this project, I thought that I would share my analysis of each Prelude on this blog in the form of a series of posts, each of which will discuss one Prelude. See below for my analysis of Prelude #1:
Prelude No. 1 is a mid-tempo piece in the key of F# minor that uses regular three-part song form (A, B, A’, Coda) and is in 4/4 time. The A section (mm 1-8) begins by stating the opening phrase in the tonic key with a two-measure phrase extension, followed by a restatement of the first phrase, this time in the chromatic mediant biii key and without the phrase extension. This section contains a primarily eighth note texture with sparse accompaniment. The B section (mm 9-16) is of a markedly different character than the A section, featuring a repetitive 1 measure rhythmic and melodic motive, as well as rapid key, dynamic, and tone color changes in the first phrase of the B section. The second phrase of the B section returns to the tonic key and features a bass line in mm 13-14 that ascends the natural minor scale by step from the tonic up to the tonic an octave higher. This bass line is supported by diatonic harmonies and an eighth note upper voice, all of which propel the phrase to a definitive half cadence in measure 16. In addition, a change of voice occurs in measure 15, where the melody is placed in the middle voice. The A’ section (mm 17-19) consists of an exact repetition of the first phrase of the A section. This is followed by the Coda (mm 20-26), which consists of an F# pedal tone, a variation of the 1 measure rhythmic motive from the first phrase of the B section, and a phrase extension from mm 24-26. The section ends on an extended plagal cadence in the tonic key.
In the late 1920’s, Mexican composer and pianist Manuel Ponce was commissioned by Andres Segovia to write twenty-four Preludes for guitar. Two volumes consisting of 6 Preludes each were published in 1930, while the remaining twelve Preludes were not published until 1980 by guitarist, Miguel Alcazar. All twenty-four Preludes make extensive use of many of the unique attributes and timbres of the guitar, such as the use of harmonics, different musical textures, placing the melody in different and sometimes unexpected registers, and utilizing specific strings extensively to bring out some of the distinctive tone colors of the instrument. Though not primarily a guitarist, Ponce composed many works for guitar, and had an ingenious ability to exploit the unique characteristics and limitations of the instrument, composing many memorable and unique pieces that are now important parts of the standard classical guitar repertory.
Segovia and Ponce first crossed paths in 1923, when Segovia played a concert in Mexico that Ponce attended for the purpose of writing a concert review for a local paper. Ponce was instantly impressed with Segovia’s virtuosity and musical sensibilities and wrote a favorable review of the concert. After reading Ponce’s review, Segovia arranged to meet with Ponce to encourage him to compose music for the classical guitar, starting a prolific series of collaborations and a long friendship over a period of slightly more than twenty years. This collaboration resulted in the composition of many notable guitar works such as “Theme Varie, et Finale”, “Sonata Mexicana”, “Concierto del sur for guitar and orchestra”, and twelve of Ponce’s twenty-four Preludes. Segovia also played a part in refining these pieces by adding fingerings, occasionally transposing to more guitar-friendly keys, and making other changes for performance purposes.
Ponce composed these twenty-four Preludes during the first five years of his eight-year stay in Paris, France, which began in 1925 and ended in 1933. Ponce and Segovia originally intended to write twenty-four Preludes for guitar with the purpose of creating a guitar method that would introduce guitarists to all twenty-four keys. However, after the publication of the first two sets of 6 Preludes by Schott Publishing in 1930, Segovia informed Ponce that Schott would not publish the remaining two volumes due to the economic depression of the 1930’s. Segovia recorded the first set of 6 Preludes for Decca records in 1952, greatly contributing to their enduring popularity. Nearly fifty years after the publication of the first two volumes, guitarist, Miguel Alcazar was granted access to some of Ponce’s surviving music archives and found all but one of the additional twelve Preludes that previously had not been published. To complete the set, Alcazar used Ponce’s folk song “Cuando la Aurora” in place of the missing Prelude and transposed the piece to G major, thus fulfilling Ponce and Segovia’s original goal of publishing twenty-four Preludes that would introduce guitarists to all twenty-four keys. Alcazar than proceeded to publish the final set of twelve Preludes in 1980 (fifty years after the publication of the first two volumes in 1930), which were received well by the classical guitar community and continue to be widely taught, learned, and performed to this day.
References: “The Influence of Folk Music in Guitar Compositions by Manuel Ponce” by Arnoldo Garcia Santos: https://repository.asu.edu/attachments/134856/content/GarciaSantos_asu_0010E_13688.pdf, “The Classical Guitar in Paris: Composers and Performers c. 1920-1960” by Duncan Robert Gardiner: http://ro.ecu.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2268&context=theses_hons, “Preludes (24) for Guitar” by Blair Johnston: https://www.allmusic.com/composition/preludes-24-for-guitar-mc0002462700, “The Segovia-Ponce Letters” by Andres Segovia and Manuel Ponce. Edited by Miguel Alcazar. https://www.amazon.com/Segovia-Ponce-Letters-Miguel-Alc%C3%A1zar/dp/B0058UA0ZW
There is always something special and somewhat indescribable about Bach’s music. I know it sounds cliché, but something about his music seems to transcend place, time, and definitive description. This piece is no exception: I have performed this piece at events ranging from farmers markets to very formal events, and it always seems to fit regardless of the occasion. The flexibility and ambiguity inherent in this piece also applies to some details of its historical background. The exact date in which the piece was written is not definitively known, with the general consensus being approximately between 1735-1740. The instrumentation of this piece was indicated on the original manuscript to be for lute or harpsichord (the manuscript recently sold for more than 2.5 million euros-see the following link for details and a very cool video which shows the manuscript: https://www.christies.com/features/Johann-Sebastian-Bach-autograph-manuscript-7497-3.aspx) However, there is much scholarly debate as to whether or not the piece was actually intended for lute, as some lutenists and scholars have found the writing style more suited for harpsichord then lute. Regardless of its original instrumentation, this is an excellent and beautiful piece that has become a staple of the classical guitar repertory.
A couple of noteworthy features include nearly constant forward motion rhythmically (except for measure 40 and 48), the use of all closely related keys (the piece is in D Major and modulates to A Major, e minor, b minor, f# minor, G Major, and even uses the key of g minor, which is the parallel minor of the subdominant). The form of the piece involves the theme or main musical idea being repeated and varied in different keys in between short musical statements that appear to be both related and distinct from the main idea. In addition, the piece utilizes several pedal tones on the tonic, a couple of memorable bass lines that are repeated with small variation in order to accommodate the current key (the bass line in measures 4-5 repeats in mm 17-18, 23-25, 36-38; and the bass line in measures 11-13 repeats with slight variation in mm 30-33).
Big picture analysis: the theme or main idea appears in measures 1-5 (D Major), 6-8 (A Major), 14-18 (b minor), 25-27 (G Major), and 42-44 (D Major), with a Coda from measures 45-48 in the tonic key.
Phrases and cadences: mm 1-6 (IAC), 6-11 (IAC), 11-14 (IAC), 14-19 (IAC), 19-25 (IAC), 25-30 (IAC), 30-33 (HC), 33-38 (IAC), 38-42 (PAC), 42-48 (IAC with a 4-3 suspension).
Pedal tones: mm 1-4 (D), 6-9 (A), 14-17 (B), 25-28 (G), 42-46 (D).
Hope you enjoyed this brief analysis of the BWV 998 Prelude! As always, feel free to reach out if you have any comments, questions, suggestions, or insights relating to this piece or analyzing Bach in general, as there are many aspects of Bach’s music that can yet be discovered and discussed.
See below for some fascinating and informative sources/references regarding this piece: http://brandon.multics.org/music/articles/ReadingBach.pdf, http://www.johnhallguitar.com/blog/prelude_analysis_bwv_998_by_j.s._bach/, https://www.allmusic.com/composition/prelude-fugue-and-allegro-for-lute-in-e-flat-major-bwv-998-bc-l132-mc0002369008
In the first part of this mini-series, I discussed Mertz’s career as a guitarist and composer, some of the influences behind Variations Mignonnes, and analyzed the first two variations. This post will analyze the third and last variation, with a focus on some of the different variation techniques that are used. Note: the measure numbers for this variation pick up where variation 2 left off. Thus, the first measure of this variation is marked in this post as mm 92, not mm 1.
Unlike the previous two variations, variation 3 begins on an 8th note pickup and utilizes many pedal tones on the tonic and dominant notes that serve to heavily reinforce the tonic key. While the harmonic progressions are similar to the first two variations (though with a slower harmonic rhythm), there is a change of melody, which is more chromatic and does not seem to be directly related to the melody of the theme. There is also a change of meter, as this variation is in 6/8 time, and imitation between voices occurs in measures 118-119, 122-123, 126-127, and 130-131. It should also be noted that there are three contrasting sections in this variation, each of which derives its distinctive character from a regularly recurring rhythmic pattern. The first section (mm 92-118) features a quarter note, 8th note, dotted 8th note, 16th note, and 8th note rhythmic figure that first shows up in mm 94 and comes back six times in the section. The second section (mm 118-157) uses several rhythmic figures, the first being the dotted 8th note, 16th note, and 8th note figure from the first section, which is followed by a 16th note chromatically descending melody accompanied by 8th note pedal tones (throughout mm 118-126). An 8th note and four consecutive 16th note rhythmic figure is found in mm 134-136, adding interest and contrast to the preceding material. Another important rhythmic figure is the 8th note, two 16th notes, and 8th note figure, which is found in measures 138-145, 199-202, and 211-214.
Big picture analysis: introduction (mm 92-93) in tonic, 1st section (mm 93-118) in tonic, relative major, 2nd section (mm 118-157), tonic, relative major, repeat of introduction (mm 158) in tonic, exact repeat of 1st section (mm 159-182) tonic and relative major, 3rd section (mm 183-214) in tonic, outro in tonic (mm 215-228).
Phrases and cadences: mm 93-97 (IAC), 97-101 (PAC in C Major), 101-105 (HC), 106-109 (HC), 110-113 (IAC), 113-118 (IAC), 118-123 (HC), 124-127 (IAC), 128-131 (HC in C Major), 132-133 (HC in C Major), 134-137 (DC), 138-141 (IAC), 142-145 (HC in C Major), 146-149 (HC), 150-153 (HC), 154-157 (HC), 159-182- same phrases and cadences as mm 93-118), 183-186 (HC), 187-190 (HC), 191-194 (HC on V of iv), 195-198 (HC on vii dim 7 of V), 199-202 (extended HC), 203-206 (HC on V of iv), 207-210 (HC on vii dim 7 of V), 211-214 (extended HC), 215-218 (HC), 219-224 (PAC), 224-228 (extended PAC).
Pedal tones: mm 92-94 (tonic), 102-109 (dominant), 116-117 (dominant), 120-121 (tonic), 124-125 (dominant), 128-129 (tonic), 132-133 (5th of dominant in C Major), 147 (VI), 148-149 (dominant in C Major), 152-153 (dominant), 158-159 (tonic), 181-182 (dominant), 199-202 (dominant), 203-205 (tonic), 211-214 (dominant), 219-222 (tonic).
I hope that this post will help some fellow guitarists who are learning this piece to better understand some of the compositional techniques behind the memorable melody and driving rhythms of this work. Please feel free to comment if you have any questions, suggestions, or insights relating to this post.
Johann Kaspar Mertz (1806-1856) was a prominent guitarist-composer during the early to mid 19th century. Originating from Hungary, Mertz learned to play guitar and flute as a child, started to teach music lessons during his teen years to help support his family, and composed music for guitar throughout his life. His career as a concert guitarist began at age 34 in Vienna, where he received patronage and was hailed as the greatest living guitarist of his time. In addition, Mertz toured throughout Europe to great acclaim from this point until 1846. In 1846, he had a near fatal overdose of strychnine, which was taken in an attempt to treat neuralgia. For the next two years, Mertz’s touring was suspended. During this period, Mertz wrote Bardenklange Op. 13, one of his greatest and best-known works, and resumed touring from 1848 until his death in 1856. In his later tours, he often performing with his wife Josephine Plantin, who was a skilled pianist. Interestingly, for the majority of his career, Mertz played a 10 string guitar with extra lower strings to create a deeper and wider range (see this article for a comprehensive overview of multi-bass and harp guitars: https://www.earlyromanticguitar.com/erg/multibass.htm)
This set of variations by Mertz was written as part of Bardenklange Op. 13, a work consisting of thirteen original character pieces as well as Mertz’s arrangements of two Polonaises (a slow march-like Polish dance in 3/4 time) by Michel Kleofas Oginski. The word bardenklange means ‘bardic sounds’, a probable reference to the work being influenced by the music of bards (Medieval poets). One of the distinguishing characteristics of this work is that it is influenced by the piano works of Romantic Period composers Schubert, Schumann, Chopin, and Mendelssohn rather than the classical forms of Mozart and Haydn or Rossini’s operas, which strongly influenced the works of previous guitarist-composers such as Sor, Aguado, and Giuliani. This combination of poetic and musical influences can be seen in the relatively simple theme being creatively varied without significant changes to the underlying harmonic progression, which is for the most part diatonic. Each variation is short in duration and is aptly described by the title ‘Variations Mignonnes’, which can be roughly translated as ‘petite variations.’
In this post, I will analyze the introductory section and first two of the three variations. The Introduction (measures 1-19) has a stately character, is in 4/4 time, and outlines the tonic key of A minor by emphasizing the tonic and dominant harmonies and using pedal tones on the tonic (measures 9-10) and the dominant (measures 11-12). The Theme (measures 20-35) is in 3/4 time, the melody is stated in the top voice, and marks the first appearance of the 16 measure harmonic progression that is repeats several times during the course of the piece.
Variation 1 (measures 36-51), also in 3/4, features the same harmony as the theme and what seems to be a different melody in the middle and upper voices, and the rhythms used consist primarily of 8th notes. In Variation 2 (measures 52-91), the theme is in the top voice and is embellished with a recurring triplet on the first beat of each measure from mm 52-67. Measures 67-91 feature 16th note arpeggios outlining the tonic and dominant harmonies, resulting in the extended length of this variation.
Phrases and cadences: mm1-4 (HC), 5-8 (IAC), 9-13 (Elided IAC), 13-16 (HC), 17-19 (HC), 20-23 (HC), 24-27 (PAC), 28-31 (HC), 32-35 (PAC), 36-39 (IAC), 40-43 (PAC), 44-47 (HC), 48-51 (PAC), 52-55 (HC), 56-59 (PAC), 60-63 (HC), 64-67 (PAC), 68-71 (IAC), 72-78 (HC), 78-82 (Elided HC), 82-85 (IAC), 86-91 (HC).
The third and final movement of this work returns to the driving rhythmic feel of the first movement, though with even more intensity. It is also the longest (272 measures) and most technically difficult movement of the work (rapid alternation and arpeggios for the right hand and stretchy chord voicings for the left hand). This movement modulates to several keys, including (but not limited to) the modulations to the subdominant and bIII keys that occur in the first movement. In addition, it is in rondo form (A, B, A, C, A, B, A) and uses cyclicism, which means that material from a preceding movement is repeated in a different movement. In this case, material from the second movement is borrowed for use in the third movement, creating a brief moment of calm before being supplanted by the driving rhythmic feel that is a constant throughout most of this piece. One characteristic that is present in all three movements is the use of a repetitive rhythmic motive which establishes continuity despite the modulations and variation of thematic content. This movement is no exception and features a 1 measure long rhythmic motive consisting of four sixteenth notes followed by an eighth note. It appears in all sections of the piece except for the C Section, can be found in multiple voices, and is not varied even when the key, melody, or harmonies have been changed. Another constant is the Spanish folk music influence in the melody that is contrasted by harmonies reminiscent of western classical music or jazz. Overall, this Sonatina is a lot of fun to play and is an exceptional feat of compositional skill that is made even more impressive by the fact that Torroba was not a guitarist. As Andres Segovia himself noted regarding his collaboration with Torroba, “in spite of his scant knowledge of the guitar’s complex technique, he approached it accurately by sheer musical instinct.”
Big picture analysis: A Section-measures 1-33 (A Major-tonic), B Section-34-56 (subdominant), A Section-57-121 (A Major, F minor, C minor, C Major), C Section 122-146 (C Major, F minor, F# Major), A Section-147-170 (F# Major, B Major), return of material from 2nd movement-171-189 (subdominant), Recapitulation-A Section 190-221 (tonic), B Section-222-256 (subdominant, tonic), A Section-257-272 (tonic).
Phrases and cadences: mm1-5 (IAC), 5-9 (PAC), 9-13 (PAC), 13-17 (HC), 17-21 (HC), 21-25 (PAC), 25-29 (PAC), 29-33 (HC in subdominant), 34-41(PAC), 41-45 (PAC), 46-49 (PAC), 50-56 (HC), 57-60 (IAC), 61-65 (PAC), 65-68 (HC), 69-73 (HC), 73-76 (HC), 77-81 (PAC), 81-88 (IAC in F minor), 88-93 (IAC in F minor), 94-98 (PAC in F minor), 98-101 (HC), 102-105 (HC), 106-110 (IAC), 110-114 (PAC), 114-118 (PAC), 118-121 (IAC), 122-125 (bII-no clear cadence), 126-130 (DC), 131-134 (DC), 135-138 (HC), 139-143 (HC in F# Major), 143-147 (PAC in F# Major), 147-151 (IAC), 151-155 (PAC in B Major), 156-166 (IAC in F# Major), 167-171 (HC in subdominant), 171-172 (HC in subdominant), 173-181 (bII), 182-185 (HC), 185-189 (HC), 190-193 (IAC), 193-197 (PAC), 197-201 (PAC), 201-205 (HC), 205-209 (HC), 209-213 (PAC), 213-217 (PAC), 217-221 (DC), 222-225 (HC), 226-229 (HC in subdominant), 230-237 (PAC), 237-240 (PAC), 241-245 (IAC in F Major), 245-250 (IAC in F Major), 251-257 (HC), 258-261 (IAC), 261-263 (IAC), 264-267 (PAC), 268-272 PAC.